But remarkably, the Ptolemaic model enabled seafarers to navigate the globe with a simple instrument, the sextant, and some carefully complied tables of observations. Newtonian mechanics were useless for that task up until the twentieth century and then it required extremely sophisticated instrument; the Inertial Navigation System.
Each of these world views is best described as a model; an intricately constructed representation of something else for the sake of being able to predict the observations. Each one obeyed the scientific method, they started with observations, formulated an hypothesis which could then be used to predict future observations. Today we call such models theories and we do not equate them with truth. And so we should not because their true figure of merit is the problem they solve.
But what is intelligence, that property that we observe in humans in far greater degree than any other species, but that ability to create knowledge of world? Knowledge gives us power to predict the results of our actions and is the ability that has made humans the masters of our world. Among all the ideas that can be considered knowledge it is scientific “theories” that have given us the greatest power. Science has harnessed the power of atoms and sends ships into space.
Thus, from this perspective, we arrive at a new a new theory of epistemology, one not focused on truth but on utility. Knowledge gets the job done. The perspective is liberating but it is just the beginning. Theories are models and models have structure. Can we expose the hidden structure of knowledge and apply it as a computable data structure? The answer is yes and in so doing we will transformed epistemology from an arcane branch of philosophy to an engineering discipline. We call it Epistemological Engineering; a new branch of computer science.
 In so doing they laid the foundation for Fourier Analysis but that invention had to wait for another 2000 or so years. What was the missing piece? Probably it was the notion of infinity. The Greeks were very suspicious of the idea (who can blame them). Fourier Analysis grew out of his work on infinite series and the Greeks just didn’t want to go there.